There are as many melee builds as there are distinct characters in Brogue, but they all focus on hitting hard and resisting damage. The big burly monsters of the dungeon, like Ogres, Trolls, Wraiths, and even Tentacle Horrors will fall before your sword like papier mache, but even the smallest Pixie will cause you trouble.
To build a solid melee character, you'll need:
A heavy weapon. The Broadsword is the standard; it derives from the Two-Handed Sword of Rogue. A War Hammer, a War Axe, or a War Pike can also be used, but you'll want to adjust the rest of your equipment accordingly. Enchantments spent on your weapon will never go amiss, so start enchanting early. (If you find a +3 weapon in any of these categories, settle on it immediately.)
Plate Armor is unmatched for raw defensive power. Enchantments spent on your armor will never go amiss, so start enchanting early. (If you find +3 Platemail, settle on it immediately.)
If you're lucky enough to find Armor of Mutuality, it splits damage among your neighboring enemies -- the upshot is that you're pretty much fighting the average of the enemies that surround you. If you pair it with a War Axe you'll attack all of them every turn while, in effect, only one of them can hurt you.
(Highly enchanted Armor of Reflection will let you ignore ranged enemies and focus on bashing things.)
A Ring of Transference will let you restore your health while you battle. It is a perfect match for heavy weapons. The disadvantage is that bad luck becomes even worse: If you get bad rolls and miss repeatedly, you'll lose your source of health.
A Ring of Regeneration will help you recover for your next fight and reduce some of the uncertainty about whether you starve out.